20 Facts Everyone Should Know About Diagnostic Imaging

Diagnostic or medical imaging incorporates radiology, nuclear medicine, investigative radiological sciences, endoscopy, medical thermography, medical photography, and microscopy. Diagnostic imaging is a science, and a tool that often is misunderstood. In this resource, which contains 20 facts everyone should know about diagnostic imaging, you may learn that the facts vary depending upon the sources. And, outside the solid fact that some body piercings may be safe to wear during testing, information on this topic often is controversial.

Safety Standards

PET ScanAlthough the term, “noninvasive,” often is applied to diagnostic imaging because the techniques do not penetrate the skin physically, some procedures are very invasive on the electromagnetic and radiation level. Learn more about safety standards for these processes.

  1. Radiation Exposure: In 2009, the National Council on Radiation Protections and Measurements (NCRP) reported that Americans were exposed to more than seven times as much ionizing radiation from medical procedures than in the early 1980s. But, the reason behind this increase was primarily a result of the growth in the use of medical imaging procedures, especially computed tomography (CT) and nuclear medicine.
  2. Exposure Reduction Measures: In 2010, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) announced an initiative to reduce unnecessary radiation exposure from three types of medical imaging procedures: computed tomography (CT), nuclear medicine, and fluoroscopy. These quality assurance practices will improve the quality of oversight and promote the safe use of advanced imaging technologies.
  3. Learning More from Less: Doctors and health facilities are learning that information gained from one magnetic resonance (MR) or CT scan can be used for other information about a patient, lessening the amount of time and money spent on repetitious procedures and increasing safety all around.
  4. Image Wisely: As a result of safety concerns, the American College of Radiology and the Radiological Society of North America formed the Joint Task Force on Adult Radiation Protection to address concerns about the surge of public exposure to ionizing radiation from medical imaging. This site addresses issues for radiologists, medical physicists, other imaging practitioners, and patients.
  5. Patient Control Factors: Although this link leads to only one resource, this company — among others — have responded to the FDA idea about patient medical imaging history cards that allow patients to track their amounts of imaging doses over a lifetime. Another free resource [PDF] is shown at Radiology Info’s site.

Mammograms and Controversies

    Mammogram

  1. Ultrasound Backup for Detection: Up to ten percent of breast cancers do not show up on a mammogram, either because they are located in a part of the breast that is difficult to include in the image or they are hidden by normal breast tissue. While ultrasound is not a first choice for detecting breast cancer, if a patient feels a lump that tests negative on a normal mammogram, an ultrasound may be used to diagnose that lump.
  2. Early Detection: An experienced examiner can feel a lump the size of a small pea. Mammography can find a lump the size of a grain of rice, especially with computer assisted detection tools (CAD).
  3. Government Intervention: In 2009, The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force advised that women over age 74 should stop all breast cancer screening because the practice lacks evidence of clinical benefit. The group based its recommendations on findings that radiology screening for breast cancer lacks evidence of clinical benefit.
  4. Controversy Continues: While tests about the effectiveness of breast cancer screening continue through 2010, one conclusion is that a better test is needed. Current screenings offer a 30-percent reduction of breast cancer deaths, while Pap smears result in a 90-percent reduction in cervical cancer deaths. Colorectal screening yields a 60-percent reduction.
  5. Further Controversy: When Mammography Screening—truth, lies and controversy was published, the book caused controversy among researchers, policymakers, and physicians. Dr. Gøtzsche, the author and director of The Nordic Cochrane Centre, Copenhagen, describes himself as someone who knew little about mammography when, in 1999, he was asked by the Danish Research Council to do an in-depth assessment of all mammography-related research. This book shows that many more women given regular mammograms are treated for breast cancer than the unscreened women, and these treatments themselves may cause fatalities.
  6. Overdiagnosis: A 2012 report reveals that Norwegian researchers analyzed data from 39,888 women with invasive breast cancer through 2006; over ten years, 7,793 women were diagnosed during the screening program. The results showed that an estimated 15 percent to 25 percent of breast cancers (1,169 to 1,948 women) were over diagnosed. This study adds to an increasing body of evidence that this practice has caused a problem for women — diagnosis of breast cancer that wouldn’t cause symptoms or death.

Other Myths and Realities

    MRI

  1. More Over Diagnosis: According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), over diagnosis is a major concern when screening for any cancer. This is because the screening process may be more likely to detect slow growing cancers or cancers that would not have become symptomatic and therefore never diagnosed. The implication for over diagnosis is that the patients diagnosed with an indolent cancer may end up undergoing an invasive intervention that they would not otherwise need.
  2. Diagnostic Imaging Doesn’t Increase Health Care Costs: A new analysis of 2010 Medicare claims data shows that spending on medical imaging continues to decline and that Medicare patients are actually receiving fewer imaging procedures, debunking the myth that life-saving diagnostic imaging exams and radiation therapy are increasing health care costs.
  3. Diagnostic Trends and Affects on Medicare: Imaging growth in Medicare is less than two percent per year. Unlike most other Medicare services, spending on medical imaging is at roughly the same level as in 2004.
  4. Increased Life Expectancy: A National Bureau of Economic Research study showed that increased use of medical imaging is directly tied to an increase in life expectancy for Americans. And that those who had lesser access to imaging had a smaller increase in life expectancy.
  5. Discrepancies in Utilization [PDF]: A Radiology Business Management Association (RBMA) survey of freestanding and outpatient imaging centers shows that the national average equipment utilization rate is only 54 percent. The results, which vary by a variety of characteristics, indicate that the present equipment utilization rate assumption of 75 percent is artificially high.
  6. CT Use Increasing in Emergencies: A recent analysis of national trends in use of CT in the emergency department (ED) concludes the increased use of CT in the ED has been associated with a decline in admissions or transfers after CT use.
  7. Diagnostic Imaging Cannot Detect Alzheimer’s Disease: There is no blood or imaging test that can be used to diagnose Alzheimer’s disease. Although imaging tests may be used in a battery of other tests to rule out other symptoms, after someone dies, an autopsy can be performed to look for physical markers of Alzheimer’s disease in the brain that cannot be seen with imaging tests.
  8. Piercings are Permissible During MR: Despite the fear that many healthcare providers harbor that jewelry will fly across the room during a magnetic resonance (MR), most published articles that address MR and piercings show that higher-quality body jewelry containing LVM 316 or 316L stainless steel, titanium, or niobium has been found to be safe even if worn during an MR examination.
  9. An MRI Can Be Used in Court: Although one company has been trying to use the magnetic resonance imaging process as a lie-detector test, this process is not as reliable as many hoped. But, in November 2009, MRI brain scans were used in court for the first time. During a sentencing hearing in Illinois for the convicted multiple murderer Brian Dugan, defense attorneys used MRI scans that showed Dugan had abnormal brain functioning.
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19 Reasons You Should Consider a Career in Medical Sonography

A career in medical sonographry might appeal to anyone who doesn’t want to be stuck behind a desk. This job demands interaction with others, including patients and doctors; however, you don’t need to attend medical school to begin working at this job. You do want to obtain an associate degree at the very least, but you can work and obtain more education as you advance in this field. The benefits far outweigh any dangers, and the rewards can be great. The following list of 19 reasons you should consider a career in medical sonography includes both career and educational ideas that could whet your appetite for working in this field. Continue reading

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Top 20 Most Influential Oncology Professors

If you’re seeking expert cancer adivce, or if you want to study under the best oncology professors, you might look at universities that also maintain a cancer medical center. This is where you may find instructors who are versed in teaching as well as in research, clinical trials and groundbreaking discoveries. The following top 20 most influential oncology professors mostly come from those environments, but other influential professors can be found working in the community, too. Continue reading

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25 Online Tests to Check Up on Your Health

If you’ve got nothing better to do this holiday season, you can find out — for free — if you or your relatives are mentally unstable, if you have a case of anxiety or stress or if you drink too much alcohol or have an eating problem. While some of these tools seem to make light of serious problems, they offer insights into the person who provides the answers — but, only if that person is listening.

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Top 50 Sonography Blogs & Websites

All it takes is one or two nights on the Internet to find all the sonography Web sites you’d ever need to learn about and stay on top of sonography as a profession. But, why spend the time when we’ve done that work for you? The list compiled below consists of the latest updated blogs, Web sites, association Web sites and journal and book sites geared specifically for sonographers.

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25 Essential Resources About Natural Childbirth

The idea of natural childbirth is starting to gain popularity as many women begin to wonder if there is way to give birth that takes them back to methods that were in use before hospitals and modernity became involved. Methods of childbirth that do not involve drugs, and that may include home births are garnering attention as some feel that it can be better for the health of both baby and mother to experience birth in a way that is largely uninhibited by modern medicinal constructs. Before you decide whether natural childbirth is for, though, you might consider these 25 resources:

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Top 50 Health & Medical Open Courseware Classes

Are you serious about learning as much as possible about current health and medical topics? Take advantage of some of the top colleges in the nation as they present Open Courseware seminars and courses that are free for anyone to use. Although these courses do not provide credits, they can become valuable resources in your goal to become more aware of national and international health and medical issues.

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17 “Bad Habits” That Are Actually Good for You

We’ve all heard about how we’re supposed to clean up, spit out that gum and turn down that music. We’ve also be told about how we won’t find success if we’re lazy, or how anger and stress can be sources for various health problems down the road. But what if all of these things were actually good for you? Is it possible that all we’ve heard about soda and gambling are wrong? Well, as always, too much of something is usually bad for you. But in moderation, some of the “unhealthy” things that we do might actually have some health benefits, reports Britain’s Daily Mail. Here are 17 “bad habits” that are actually good for you.

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7 Top iPhone Apps for Your Health

It is important to maintain good health; with the advancement of technology, it is now much easier to keep track of our health and fitness in terms of what we include in our diets and exercise. Below is a list of the top seven iPhone applications that can be of use in health and fitness.

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Diagnostic Medical Sonography Degree

Do you know that one of the fastest growing branches of medicine is diagnostic medical sonography? All over the world people are aging and growing old creating more demand for the various sonography services like therapeutic technology and diagnostic imaging. Fortunately, diagnostic medical sonography courses are offered in various institutions including hospitals, colleges, and universities, and in the army.

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